This book is the culmination of twenty-five years of teaching Geometrical Optics. The volume is organised such that the single spherical refracting surface is the basic optical element. Spherical mirrors are treated as special cases of refraction, with the same applicable equations. Thin lens equations follow as combinations of spherical refracting surfaces while the cardinal points of the thick lens make it equivalent to a thin lens. Ultimately, one set of vergence equations are applicable to all these elements.The chapters are devoted to in-depth treatments of stops, pupils and ports; magnifiers, microscopes, telescopes, and camera lenses; ophthalmic instruments; resolving power and MTF; trigonometric ray tracing; and chromatic and monochromatic aberrations. There are over 100 worked examples, 400 homework problems and 400 illustrations.First published in 1994 by Penumbra Publishing Co.