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The expense of critical care and emergency medicine, along with widespread expectations for good care when the need arises, pose hard moral and political problems. How should we spend our tax d'ollars, and who should get help? The purpose of this volume is to reflect upon our choices. The authors whose papers appear herein identify major difficulties and offer various solutions to them. Four topics are discussed throughout the volume: First, encounters between patients and health professionals in critical situations in general, and where scarcity makes rationing necessary; second, allocation and social policy, including how much to spend on preventive, chronic or critical care medicine, or for medicine in general compared to other important social projects; third, conflicts between or ranking of important goals and values; and fourth, conceptual issues affecting the choices we make. Since these topics are raised by the authors in almost every essay, we did not divide the papers into separate sections within the volume. Warren Reich begins the volume with a parable illustrating a key problem for contemporary medicine and two very different approaches to its solution. His story begins with the "delivery" of three indigent, critically ill, foreign patients to the emergency room of a large American private hospital. Although the hospital is legally bound to care for these patients, providing long term, high cost care for them and others soon becomes a major financial strain.

Remediation in medical education is the act of facilitating a correction for trainees who started out on the journey toward becoming excellent physicians but have moved off course. This book offers an evidence-based and practical approach to the identification and remediation of medical trainees who are unable to perform to standards. As assessment of clinical competence and professionalism has become more sophisticated and ubiquitous, medical educators increasingly face the challenge of implementing effective and respectful means to work with trainees who do not yet meet expectations of the profession and society.

Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction describes practical stepwise approaches to remediate struggling learners in fundamental medical competencies; discusses methods used to define competencies and the science underlying the fundamental shift in the delivery and assessment of medical education; explores themes that provide context for remediation, including professional identity formation and moral reasoning, verbal and nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders in high-functioning individuals, diversity, and educational and psychiatric topics; and reviews system issues involved in remediation, including policy and leadership challenges and faculty development.