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Addresses the urgent need to improve the training and clinical performance of physicians and allied health professionals who use ultrasound for diagnostic applications. Noting that the clinical benefits of this safe, effective, and highly flexible diagnostic tool depend on the training and skills of the user, the report responds to the problems created by the absence, in all but a few affluent countries, of properly developed programmes for training in ultrasonography. These problems, which include the expense of unnecessary examinations as well as the risk of misdiagnosis, are further compounded by the lack of regulation of equipment, its low cost, and recent technical innovations that have increased the difficulties of performing examinations and interpreting their results.
With these problems in mind, the report sets out international guidelines, including recommended curriculum content, for training users to perform and interpret clinical examinations commonly required in different health care settings. While noting that nurses, physicians' assistants, and other health workers often perform examinations, the report recognizes that the interpretation of ultrasound images and diagnostic decision-making are everywhere the responsibility of physicians. Recommended minimum standards for training reflect the consensus reached by an international group of 15 experts. Several professional societies, including the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, also contributed their considerable experience and advice.
The report has six main sections. The first traces the rapid development of diagnostic ultrasound and explains why standards for ultrasonography training must be regarded as a prerequisite for the provision of high-quality diagnostic ultrasound services. Section two reviews recent trends in the utilization of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice, and examines the variety of practices, in a range of different countries, that govern the training of users.
Against this background, section three presents recommended ultrasonography curricula judged appropriate for medical students, and for the general, advanced, and specialized training of physicians. General ultrasonography training for sonographers and other allied health professionals is covered in section four.
The recommended content of curricula is expanded in section five, which describes the aspects of basic sciences and instrumentation that should be included in general and advanced training for physicians and allied health professionals. Section six discusses the level of competence that should be reached during training, and presents recommended standards for training programmes and the training process, including requirements for instructors and training centres. The report concludes with a summary of recommendations and conclusions, followed by a list, organized according to clinical specialty, of common applications of diagnostic ultrasound.

The assessment and selection of oocytes and embryos is fundamental to the live birth rate data of all IVF units, the parameter that is used to gauge a clinic's success and credibility. This new atlas contains over 1000 high-quality images of oocytes, zygotes and embryos, presented with accompanying data on indications for treatment, stimulation type and duration, as well as short medical histories of each couple and final outcome of treatment. All images in the book can be downloaded from the accompanying CD-ROM. Structured on a patient-by-patient basis, the atlas describes 100 clinically documented case studies that follow the evolution of oocytes and zygotes between day two and day five. Pronuclear morphology and synchrony as well as embryo morphology are reported and described for each case. Written and produced by experienced embryologists, this practical atlas is an important resource for clinical embryologists and physicians in reproductive medicine.

This compact color atlas is an ideal reference for the identification of medically important bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Over 460 superb full-color photographs and electron micrographs, with concise explanatory text and captions, provide a clear framework for understanding and recognizing the pathogens that infect humans. This 2nd Edition has been updated to include the latest information on molecular diagnostics as well as new and zoonotic pathogens. It is invaluable both as a hands-on clinical reference tool, and as a self-testing resource for exam review.

  • Offers more than 460 excellent, full-color electron micrographs and micrographs depicting microbiological samples.
  • Uses short, clear captions and explanatory text to make important information easy to access in the laboratory setting.
  • Features a convenient pocket size, perfect for benchside consultation or portable review.


  • Reflects the latest advances in our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, such as the discovery of bacterial pathogenicity islands and Type III secretion systems that inject bacterial effectors directly into the host-cell cytoplasm.
  • Describes many new, emerging, and re-emerging infections and pathogens, including SARS.
  • Presents expanded coverage of diagnostic bacteriology to include more automated and molecular diagnostic methods.
  • Includes a new discussion of biofilms and quorum sensing.