Prior to and during the Second World War, the Japanese Army established programs of biological warfare throughout China and elsewhere. In these “factories of death,” including the now-infamous Unit 731, Japanese doctors and scientists conducted large numbers of vivisections and experiments on human beings, mostly Chinese nationals. However, as a result of complex historical factors including an American cover-up of the atrocities, Japanese denials, and inadequate responses from successive Chinese governments, justice has never been fully served. This volume brings together the contributions of a group of scholars from different countries and various academic disciplines. It examines Japan’s wartime medical atrocities and their postwar aftermath from a comparative perspective and inquires into perennial issues of historical memory, science, politics, society and ethics elicited by these rebarbative events. The volume’s central ethical claim is that the failure to bring justice to bear on the systematic abuse of medical research by Japanese military medical personnel more than six decades ago has had a profoundly retarding influence on the development and practice of medical and social ethics in all of East Asia. The book also includes an extensive annotated bibliography selected from relevant publications in Japanese, Chinese and English.
As health care concerns grow in the U.S., medical anthropologist Linda M. Whiteford and social psychologist Larry G. Branch present their findings on a health care anomaly, from an unlikely source. Primary Health Care in Cuba examines the highly successful model of primary health care in Cuba following the 1959 Cuban Revolution. This model, developed during a time of dramatic social and political change, created a preventive care system to better provide equity access to health care. Cuba's recognition as a paragon of health care has earned praise from the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the Pan American Health Organization. In this book, Whiteford and Branch explore the successes of Cuba's preventive primary health care system and its contribution to global health.
Avedis Donabedian's name is synonymous with quality of medical care. He unraveled the mystery behind the concept by defining it in clear operational terms and provided detailed blueprints for both its measurement(known as quality assessment) and its improvement(known as quality assurance). Many before him claimed that quality couldn't be defined in concrete objective terms. He demonstrated that quality is an attribte of a system which he called structure, a set of organized activities whihc he called process, and an outcome which results from both. In this book Donabedian tells the full story of quality assessment and assurance in simple, clear terms. He defines the meaning of quality, explicates its components, and provides clear and systematic guides to its assessment and enhancement. His style is lucid, succinct, systematic and yet personal, almost conversational.
What have been the roles of charities and the state in supporting medical provision? These are issues of major relevance, as the assumptions and practices of the welfare state are increasingly thrown into doubt. This title offers a broad perspective on the relationship between charity and medicine in Western Europe, up to the advent of welfare states in the 20th century. Through detailed case studies, the authors highlight significant differences between Britain, France, Italy and Germany, and offer a critical vocabulary for grasping the issues raised. This volume reflects recent developments relating to the role of charity in medicine, particularly the revival of interest in the place of voluntary provision in contemporary social policy. It emphasizes the changing balance of "care" and "cure" as the aim of medical charity, and shows how economic and political factors influenced the various forms of charity.
The field of the history of medicine and health has expanded spectacularly in recent times. In What is Medical History? John C. Burnham explores the reasons for this expansion, introducing medical history for those who know little of the subject. He sheds light on a field once written entirely by physicians, but which now attracts not only general historians but also policy makers and health care workers of all kinds.
Burnham explains that people are drawn into reading and writing about five often controversial dramas inherent in the stories of:
- healers in all times and places, from conjurers to technical specialists;
- patients from all ages and cultures;
- diseases, from possession by demons, to infections that expand at the rate of an inch every half hour, to subtle environmental poisons;
- discovery and the communication of ideas, great and trivial, flawed and brilliant;
- continuing controversies around ways that health care delivery affected societies - and was shaped by societies and social institutions - through the ages.
Uniting all of these dramas, Burnham shows, was the tension between the forces of medicalization and the forces of demedicalization.
Burnham, a distinguished and versatile historian of medicine and health, offers a colorful introduction to both traditional subjects, such as the evolution of medical instruments, and the latest controversies. In this dynamic field, he contends, the unanswered questions remain as attractive as the scholarship that gives rise to them.
The History of Respiratory Therapy: Discovery and Evolution includes the earliest beginning of the inhalational practice of medicine, vapors, and aromatherapy around 6,000 B.C. Its roots are in Egypt, China, India, and the middle East. From there, it spreads to Europe and the Americas. Some highlights include:In 6000 B.C. aromatherapy has its beginning. In 3000 B.C. Egypt, tracheostomy is depicted on a sculptured slab. 2600 B.C. there is mention of inhalational treatment for asthma in China. Tuberculosis-Pott's Disease is found in mummies in Egypt around 2400 B.C. In 1275 A.D., Lillius discovers ether but it is not apparently used until 1842 when Crawford Long M.D. administers ether to remove two cysts from a patient.In 1783, Caillens was first reported doctor to use oxygen therapy as a remedy. In 1873, Theodore Billroth M.D. performs first laryngectomy. In 1917, Captain Stokes M.D. uses a rubber nasal catheter and nasal prongs to administed oxygen for WWI pulmonary edema patients. But only in the past 100 years is the major evolution of respiratory therapy been realized.The History of Respiratory Therapy: Discovery and Evolution is the first comprehensive written book on this subject and makes it a pioneer which officially documents information which is scattered throughout various resources.
Dr. Clendening, who was Professor of the History of Medicine at the University of Kansas, brings together in this work the most significant medical writings of 4,000 years. One hundred twenty-four papers by 120 authors are presented in chronological order, each with an introduction and short biography of its author. They cover almost every area of medical thought and practice ? pathology, asepsis, preventive medicine, bacteriology, physiology, etc. ? from the Egyptian Kahun Papyrus of 1900 B.C. to W. C. Roentgen's discovery of X-rays. Dr. Clendening has carefully selected the important sections of each paper, to save you reading time. Several of these works were specially translated for this collection. This book will give anybody interested in medicine a view of his profession unequalled for its immediacy. He will witness the dramatic growth of knowledge and skills, with each advance announced by its originator, each great concept presented in its original form. The breadth of these writings alone makes this book unique. An additional feature is the inclusion of selections from non-medical literature, showing lay views of medicine at different ages. Here are accounts of Greek medicine by Aristophanes, Plato, and Thucydides; of Arabian medicine from the Arabian Nights; glimpses of contemporary medical life by Chaucer, Molire, Dickens, Thackeray, and others.
"A notable service . . . useful to teacher and student alike." ? American Historical Review. "Every item is worthy of inclusion." ? American Journal of Public Health.
The American Civil War is the most read about era in our history, and among its most compelling aspects is the story of Civil War medicine - the staggering challenge of treating wounds and disease on both sides of the conflict. Written for general readers and scholars alike, this first-of-its kind encyclopedia will help all Civil War enthusiasts to better understand this amazing medical saga. Clearly organized, authoritative, and readable, "The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine" covers both traditional historical subjects and medical details. It offers clear explanations of unfamiliar medical terms, diseases, wounds, and treatments. The encyclopedia depicts notable medical personalities, generals with notorious wounds, soldiers' aid societies, medical department structure, and hospital design and function. It highlights the battles with the greatest medical significance, women's medical roles, period sanitation issues, and much more. Presented in A-Z format with more than 200 entries, the encyclopedia treats both Union and Confederate material in a balanced way. Its many user-friendly features include a chronology, a glossary, cross-references, and a bibliography for further study.
Temple University's alumni number over a quarter million, andinclude entertainment legend Bill Cosby and Shirley Tilghman, the first woman president of Princeton University. One of every eight college graduates in the Philadelphia area received their degrees at Temple. Temple Owls are everywhere!
Temple University: 125 Years of Service to Philadelphia, the Nation, and the World, by noted historian and Temple professor James Hilty offers the first full history of Temple University. Lovingly written and beautifully designed, it presents a rich chronicle from founder Russell Conwell’s vision to democratize, diversify, and broaden the reach of higher education to Temple's present-day status as the twenty-eighth largest university and the fifth largest provider of professional education in the United States. With its state-of-the-art technological capabilities, improved amenities, and new multi-million- dollar facilities, Temple remains at the forefront of America’s modern urban universities.
The book captures Temple’s long record of service to its North Philadelphia neighbors, its global reach to Rome, Tokyo, and beyond, and its development from a rowhouse campus into a lively 11,000- resident urban village—all the while assuring “Access to Excellence.” Along the way, we learn how Temple reacted to and helped shape major developments in the history of American higher education.
Featuring 250 full-color photos, Temple University provides a wonderful keepsake for those who already know the university and will become a valued resource for anyone interested in the urban university.
In all parts of the world and in every age, many of the greatest works of literature have been shaped or inspired by the swirl of historical events. The wars, holocausts, and mushroom clouds of our own era haunt the pages of many twentieth-century writers; events of the past, even the remote past, also inspire many authors, though their work is contemporary in every way. And if we agree with the poet Czeslaw Milosz that "historicity may reveal itself in a detail of architecture, in the shaping of a landscape," we come to recognize that our understanding of a given poem or novel can often be deepened by a reading from this point of view.
The essayists in Literature and the Historical Process explore the ways in which history and literature are intertwined in the works of a number of twentieth-century writers. These probing critical readings from the historical point of view not only enlighten us about the works under consideration but, especially when taken together, enrich our understanding of the literary impulse itself.
In "Nature, History, and Art in Elizabeth Bishop's 'Brazil, January 1, 1502,'" for example, Barbara Page shows how Bishop "used and rearranged" knowledge derived from her study of Brazil's history. Page's somewhat feminist reading may surprise those who find Bishop's poetic persona hard to identify.
Among the other authors considered are Jorge Luis Borges, Michel de Ghelderode, Elizabeth Bowen, Rose Macauley, Anthony Burgess, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Cesare Pavese, and Czeslaw Milosz.