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We find risks everywhere—from genetically modified crops, medical malpractice, and stem-cell therapy to intimacy, online predators, identity theft, inflation, and robbery. They arise from our own acts and they are imposed on us. In this Very Short Introduction, Baruch Fischhoff and John Kadvany draw on the sciences and humanities to explore and explain the many kinds of risk. Using simple conceptual frameworks from decision theory and behavioural research, they examine the science and practice of creating measures of risk, showing how scientists address risks by combining historical records, scientific theories, probability, and expert judgment.Risk: A Very Short Introduction describes what has been learned by cognitive scientists about how people deal with risks, applying these lessons to diverse examples, and demonstrating how understanding risk can aid choices in everyday life and public policies for health, safety, environment, finance, and many other topics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

This is a book about the policy process. It discusses the considerations advisers have in mind as they develop and select policy alternatives, the ways each of us might want to think about making decisions, and the lessons we should remember in order to minimize avoidable errors. In writing about his experiences in government, the classroom, and private life, Fein offers insights that apply to people responsible for decisions in many kinds of institutions, at all levels of responsibility.

His anecdotes and the situations he describes are drawn from over fifty years of experience in the policy arena. They are not intended to represent either a rounded theory about public administration or a comprehensive treatment of important components of political science. Like most people in the policy arena, Fein came to that work from another discipline-in his case economics. His experience of "finding his own way" through action and experience rather than through application of theory might appear quaint. But his successes, failures, and the lessons he learned, illuminate the process and may prove useful, even inspirational.

Fein is sensitive to the need to move beyond statistics and to present the real world and the faces of real people behind the data. He believes that an effective adviser should bring knowledge and interests that extend beyond the confines of a single discipline, even one as methodologically powerful as economics. Unless the adviser presents a range of choices that have been developed with contributions from many fields of knowledge, the proposed policies are likely to be far too constrained and, at worst, unworkable. His perspective, articulated in this book, is easily summarized: there is more to life and to our nation's welfare than economics. We live in a society, not in an economy.

All too often, economics is seen as a synonym for savings and financial pressure. However, what it really aims to do is find the best possible way to spend the available financial means. In order to apply economic
thinking to healthcare, Annemans argues, the health sector should be viewed as a productive sector whose aim is to produce health, by ensuring that people live longer and more healthily. As 'productive' goes hand in hand with 'productivity', society must try to gain as much health as possible with the available means. Therefore, priority must be given to interventions (both preventive and curative) which result in the greatest amount of health for the money that is invested. These choices can be made by means of health economic
evaluation. Hence, the second goal of this book is to explore the methods of health economic evaluation and explain them. Non-economists are frequently confronted with the results of such evaluations, for example in articles in medical journals, but often ignore them because they are not familiar with the terminology and techniques. This book aims to equip non-economists with enough knowledge to participate in the choices
that are made in health care.

This Text Strikes The Necessary Balance Of Population-Based Health Economics And The More Traditional, Market-Oriented Approach To Health Care Economics. The Fifth Edition Provides The Necessary Tools To Develop A Systematic And Disciplined Approach For Solving Economic Problems In A Health Care Context While Learning The Importance Of Being Able To Identify, Define, Measure, Explain, And Predict Certain Economic Phenomena And Evaluate The Relevance Of End Results. Fundamental, Yet Comprehensive In Coverage, The Focus Is On How To Think About Economic Problems In A Systematic Way--Using The Three Major Tasks Of Economics--Descriptive Economics, Explanatory Economics, And Evaluative Economics.